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SUSTAINABLE USE OF PESTICIDES

For realisation of the goals of EU Thematic Strategy on the sustainable use of pesticides (2007) in reduction of risk and adverse effects of PPPs to human health and the environment, the European Parliament and EU Council adopted a package of new EU legislation in 2009:

  • Directive 2009/128/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council establishing a framework for Community action to achieve the sustainable use of pesticides;
  • Regulation (EC) No 1107/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning the placing of plant protection products on the market;
  • Directive 2009/127/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Directive 2006/42/EC with regard to machinery for pesticide application;
  • Regulation (EC) No 1185/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning statistics on pesticides.

 

1. Professional training

Article 5 of Directive 128/2009/EC provides for Member States to establish a training system which ensures that all persons using PPPs in their professional activities (professional users), distributors of PPPs and advisors in relation to protection of plants against harmful organisms and the safe use of PPPs within the framework of advisory services or commercial services, have access to an appropriate professional training for the safe use of PPPs and gain the trainng certificates. Training levels are adjusted to the type of participants of the training and the content shall comply with the provisions of Directive. A Member State designates training providers who organise the initial and additional training. The system of training certficates includes procedures for granting, renewal and withdrawal of certificates, called in RS the training identificaton cards.

 

2. Distribution of PPPs
According to Article 6 of Directive 128/2009/EC Member States shall organise the system of selling of PPPs that includes sales persons and advisors having gained the training certificates, selling the PPPs for professional use to buyers that at the time of purchase produce the training certificate and defining the PPPs for non-professional use, that can be sold to buyers without training certificate.

 

 Record keeping: Regulation 1107/2009 defines that distributors shall keep record concerning the name and quantity of PPP placed on the market.

 

3. Information and awareness-raising

Article 7 of Directive 128/2009/ES stipulates that Member States take measures to inform the general public and to promote and facilitate information and awareness-raising programmes and the availability of accurate and balanced information relating to PPP for the general public, in particular regarding the risk and the possible acute and chronic effects on human health, non-target organisms and the environment arising from their use; and the use of non-chemical alternatives. Member States shall put in place systems for gathering information on PPPs acute poisoning incidents, as well as chronic poisoning developments where available, among groups that may be exposed regularly to PPPs (e.g. farmers).

 

4. Aerial spraying

Article 9 of Directive 128/2009/EC stipulates that Member States ensure that aerial spraying (PPP application from the aircraft) is prohibited. Directive defines that aerial spraying in exceptional cases may only be allowed under special, highly strict and onerous conditions.

 

5. Protection of the aquatic environment and drinking water

Article 11 of Directive 128/2009/ES stipulates that Member States implement additional measures to protect the aquatic environment and drinking water supplies from the impact of PPPs. Those measures shall comply with regulations that govern waters, and regulations that govern placing PPPs on the market. These measures include in particular: (a) giving preference to PPPs that are not classified as dangerous for the aquatic environment; (b) use of low-drift pesticide application equipment, especially in vertical crops; (c) prevention of offsite pollution with PPP caused by spray drift, drain-flow and run-off. These includes the establishment of buffer zones for the protection of surface and groundwater, where PPPs shall not be used or stored, (d) reducing as far as possible or eliminating applications of PPPs on or along roads, railway lines, very permeable surfaces or other infrastructure close to surface water or groundwater or on sealed surfaces with a high risk of run-off into surface water or sewage systems.

 

6. Reduction of PPPs use or risk or prohibition in specific areas

Article 12 of Directive 128/2009/EC stipulates that Member States, having due regard to necessary hygiene and public health requirements and biodiversity, or the results of relevant risk assessments, ensure that the use of PPPs is minimised or prohibited in certain specific areas. Appropriate risk management measures shall be implemented and the use of low-risk plant protection products and biological control measures shall be considered in the first place. The specific areas in question are: protected areas in accordance with regulations governing waters (water-protection areas) and regulations governing habitat types and protection of birds; direct vicinity of areas of public parks and gardens, sports and recreation grounds, school grounds and children’s playgrounds and in the close vicinity of healthcare facilities; recently treated areas used by or accessible to agricultural workers.

 

7. Integrated pest management

According to Article 14 of Directive 128/2009/EC Member States shall take all necessary measures to promote low pesticide-input pest management, which includes integrated pest management as well as organic farming. Member States shall establish or support the establishment of the system for the implementation of integrated pest management, which would ensure that professional users have at their disposal information, tools for pest monitoring as well as advisory services on integrated pest management. Professional users shall comply with the general principles of integrated pest management as set out in Directive 128/2009/EC. Organisations which represent producers may prepare crop or sector specific guidelines for integrated pest management. These guidelines are used on a voluntary basis.

 

Integrated production has ben developed in RS since 1994 as sector specific guidelines and as a voluntary certification system with Ministry of Agriculture supporting the system.

 

With the implementation of Directive 2009/128/EC the general principles of IPM become obligatory and they have been implementd in RS in 2014 by Rules on integrated pest management (UL RS 43/14) (English translation).

 

Crop and sector specific IPM guidelines remain a voluntary scheme in RS.

 

 

8. National action plan

Accordig to Article 14 of Directive 128/2009/EC Member States shall adopt National Action Plans (NAP) to set up their objectives, measures and timetables to reduce risks and impacts of PPP use on human health and the environment and to encourage the development and introduction of integrated pest management and of alternative approaches or techniques in order to reduce dependency on the use of PPPs. The National Action Plan also includes indicators to monitor the use of plant protection products containing active substances of particular concern, especially if alternatives are available. On the basis of such indicators, timetables and targets for the reduction of use of PPPs are established. When drawing up and adopting their National Action Plans, Member States shall consider various impacts of the measures envisaged and all relevant stakeholder groups. Member States describe in their National Action Plans how they will implement measures pursuant to Articles 5 to 15 of Directive 128/2009/EC. Member States have communicated their National Action Plans to the Commission and to other Member States by the end of 2012 .